Flue gas is a mixture of gases resulting from combustion and other reactions in a furnace, passing off through the smoke flue, composed largely of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapor, and often sulfur dioxide

The following industries are the major generators of flue gas:
Power generation, Oil & Gas, Petrochemical, Metals, Construction materials, Polymers manufacturing, Waste incineration and thermal recycling.

When humans burn fossil fuels, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen chloride, etc, are released into the atmosphere. Those air pollutants react with water, oxygen, and other substances to form airborne sulfuric and nitric acid which then mix with water and other materials before falling to the ground as acid rain. Acidic particles and gases can also deposit from the atmosphere to surfaces in the absence of moisture as dry deposition. When the accumulated acids are washed off a surface by the next rain, this acidic water flows over and through the ground, and can harm plants and wildlife, such as insects and fish.

Traditionally, flue gas is filtered through separate chemical and physical processes for each pollutant, minimising air pollution, but creating waste water, sludge and solids. In addition, the process utilizes vast amounts of another important natural resource: water. (IAEA)
Electron beams are highly effective in removal of most oxides like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The electron beam irradiation is a dry scrubbing technology which uses only electrical power. As a result of treatment the by-product is formed which may be further used in different industries.

Radiation technology is a dry-scrubbing process that utilizes electron beams (EB) to treat pollutants, with considerable efficiency gains. Pretreated in an electrostatic precipitator, the flue gas is then cooled in a spray cooler and passed through a pipe, where it is exposed to electron beams. This simultaneously removes sulphur and nitrogen oxides (SO2 and NOx) without water usage.

IAEA facilitates and supports development and adaptation of ionizing radiation technologies dedicated to treatment of flue gas emissions.
  • No catalysts or other chemical agents required for treatment
  • Environment friendly treatment method
  • The process by-product is used as agriculture fertilizer
  • Technology of electron beam radiation has been proven by pilot projects and is used on commercial scale in different countries